Conical refraction

Conical refraction is observed when a light beam passing along one of the optic axis of a biaxial crystal is transformed into a light ring. Since its discovery in the 1830s by Hamilton and Lloyd till very recently, conical refraction has been an almost forgotten phenomenon. We focus our investigations in conical refraction not only with respect to fundamental issues but also to applications such as in free space optical communications, in polarization metrology, in the manipulation of microparticles via photophoresis, and in trapping single-atoms and Bose–Einstein condensates in ring potentials.

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