|Title||"The Cowl Does Make The Monk". Understanding the emergence of social entrepreneurship in times of downturn|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Molina, JL, Lubbers, MJ, Valenzuela-García, H, Escribano, P, Lobato, M|
|Journal||VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organization|
In order to contribute to the debate about social entrepreneurship, we take an empirical perspective and describe the phenomenon in a specific temporal-spatial context - that of Catalonia, Spain, during the crisis. For this aim, we conducted 43 in-depth interviews with social entrepreneurs, launched a web-survey to which another 90 cases responded, and built a database with 347 organizations and/or ventures settled in Catalonia with an explicit social/environmental goal. The data show that many social/environmental initiatives emerged during the economic crisis, either as a self-employment alternative to unemployment, or as a commercial venture started by non-profit organizations as a reaction to the reduction in public expense in this sector. In addition, the crisis fueled the emergence of ventures oriented to non-market exchange and social currencies. As a whole, we argue that this new reality can be conceptualized as the emergence of an unsettled Strategic Action Field (SAF) where banks, business schools and public administrations alike promote the label of “social entrepreneurship” through awards and startup services, whereas other groups claiming the same social/environmental goals contest this market-oriented definition of the field.