Resource theories in quantum information science are helpful for the study and quantification of the performance of information-processing tasks that involve quantum systems. These resource theories also find applications in the study of other areas; e.g., the resource theories of entanglement and coherence have found use and implications in the study of quantum thermodynamics and memory effects in quantum dynamics. In this paper, we introduce the resource theory of unextendibility, which is associated to the inability of extending quantum entanglement in a given quantum state to multiple parties. The free states in this resource theory are the k-extendible states, and the free channels are k-extendible channels, which preserve the class of k-extendible states. We make use of this resource theory to derive non-asymptotic, upper bounds on the rate at which quantum communication or entanglement preservation is possible by utilizing an arbitrary quantum channel a finite number of times, along with the assistance of k-extendible channels at no cost. We then show that the bounds we obtain are significantly tighter than previously known bounds for both the depolarizing and erasure channels.