|Title||Characterization of Charge States in Conducting Organic Nanoparticles by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Fraxedas, J, Vollmer, A, Koch, N, de Caro, D, Jacob, K, Faulmann, C, Valade, L|
The metallic and semiconducting character of a large family of organic materials based on the electron donor molecule tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) is rooted in the partial oxidation (charge transfer or mixed valency) of TTF derivatives leading to partially filled molecular orbital-based electronic bands. The intrinsic structure of such complexes, with segregated donor and acceptor molecular chains or planes, leads to anisotropic electronic properties (quasi one-dimensional or two-dimensional) and morphology (needle-like or platelet-like crystals). Recently, such materials have been synthesized as nanoparticles by intentionally frustrating the intrinsic anisotropic growth. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) has emerged as a valuable technique to characterize the transfer of charge due to its ability to discriminate the different chemical environments or electronic configurations manifested by chemical shifts of core level lines in high-resolution spectra. Since the photoemission process is inherently fast (well below the femtosecond time scale), dynamic processes can be efficiently explored. We determine here the fingerprint of partial oxidation on the photoemission lines of nanoparticles of selected TTF-based conductors.